<h1>on Architecture and related Media … </h1>

Development of London

1666 - 1799
Google Urbanism™
Online since 30th of November 2007
Last changes: 24th of July 2015

London Squares by 1799 according to Horwood's map | Franz Sdoutz 2007
II.) Img. _01

The diagram above translates the visual information of Hollar's maps into Horwood's record - resulting in a plausible, though purely speculative 1666 London! [Sdoutz 2007]


Chronological list of online resources that have informed the decisions (assumptions) made for the diagram (Img. _01 based on Horwood's map from 1799) and other maps of London from the 17th and 18th century.


"Squares" in the above diagram SIMPLY include all urban spaces with "square" in their name by 1799. Therefore excluding all "places" "courts", "yards" "grounds" "greens" "gardens" "walks" "malls" "fields", "parks", "markets" "wharfs" "closes" … namely different spaces - with an assigned (primary) function, other than that of the formal residential square.

With the notable exception of: Covent Garden (Westminster), Hans Place (Kensington), Lincolns Inn FIelds (Lincoln's Inn Fields - Camden Town) and Moor Fields (Moorfields / Finsbury Circus - City).

Thus the English (!) language hints at formal and functional aspects when denoting [bedeuten] a square. This excludes all 'irregular' spaces (even though sometimes pronounced squares) that lack(ed) any apparent geometrical intent. I.e. St. Johns Square (Saint John's Square - Clerkenwell), Gough Square (City), West Smithfield (W Smithfield - City), The Mall, The Strand (Strand - Westminster), […].

Devonshire Square (City), Cox's Square (City), Haydon Square (City), America Square (City), New Square (City), Printers Square (City), Gun Square (Aldgate, City), Sion Square (Poplar), Audley Square (Westminster), Canterbury Square (Camberwell) […] are (were) too small to be shown in this diagram; marking scale the 3rd aspect.

It is also unaware of spaces, 'intuitively' attributed to and prerequisited for certain typologies: such as hospitals, houses [palaces], inns, convents, mews, […].

Leaving a definition for the London Residential Square as a Cour d'Honneur (for a row of houses) featuring front green (formal gardens at first, Landscape gardens from around 1730). III.) 2

Attributing the notion of public domains (versus private spaces) would not apply, for these squares were not necessarily meant for and accessible to 'a general public'.
» The English square, […] was merely a place where many people of the same class had their houses and it was therefore perfectly in keeping that it should be like the courtyard of a convent. « I.) 1 Acknowledging the social aspect.

Site names: "Horwood's notation" (current name / current district)

[Sdoutz 2008]
See https://youtu.be/ for larger player.

  • 'Lincolns Inn Fields' in the 13th century [drawn 1805]
  • 'LONDON Westminster and Southwark As in the OLDEN TIMES […]' [depicting London pre 1530s by William Newton 1855] http://www.oldlondonmaps.com/
  • 'Civitas Londinum' [attributed to Ralph Agas c1560] http://mapco.net/
  • John Speed, 'MIDLE-SEX described WITH THE MOST FAMOUS Cities of LONDON and WESTMINSTER' 1611 (zoomable) ['Described by Iohn Norden {1593}, Augmeted by I. Speed …']
  • "As In Q. Elizabeth's Time" by John Strype [published 1720]
  • Wenceslaus Hollar, 'Old London 1642' 1642
  • George Vertue, 1642 & 1643 [published in 1738 ]
  • Wenceslaus Hollar's prospect of London, published by Danckerts in Amsterdam 1647
  • John Norden, 'A guide for Cuntrey men In the famous Cittey of LONDON …' 1653 from the 1653 edition of John Norden's 'Speculum Britainiae' (zoomable) large monochrome
  • T. Porter, 'The Newest & Exactest MAPP of the most Famous Citties LONDON and WESTMINSTER with their Suburbs; and the manner of their Streets: with the …' 1654 (zoomable)
  • Wenceslaus Hollar, 'Great Map of London', 1658 (Extract in London: The Unique City, page 87)
  • Anonymous, 'LONDINIUM. London' 1658
  • Richard Newcourt, 'An Exact Delineation of the Cities of London and Westminster and the Surburbs and all the throughfares, highways, streets, lanes and common allies', 1658 (ectract )

    Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677)
    Plan of London before the great fire of 1666
    http://link.library.utoronto.ca/ colour
    http://link.library.utoronto.ca/ monochrome
    Collage image database 1665
    http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/ 1673 (zoomable) [above surveyed by Richard Blome]
    Collage image database 1680 [large]
    Collage image database 1976 [?] (compare: John Oliver 1680)
    and after the fire of 1666
    Collage image database 1666
    http://www.bl.uk/ 1666 (zoomable)
    http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ [PDF] 'HOLLAR'S "EXACT SURVEIGH" OF THE CITY OF LONDON, 1667' http://www.british-history.ac.uk/
    Collage image database 1750
    http://mapco.net/ 1772 []
    […] with a proposed plan by Robert Hooke [inset]
    Marcus Willemsz Doornick, 'PLATTE GRONDT der Stadt LONDON' 1666 colour (compare: Richard Newcourt 1658)
    'Abbildung der Statt LONDON, sambt dem erschröcklichen brandt daselsten, so 4. tagen lange gewehrt hatt. A.° 1666. […]' Merian 1670 http://www.oldlondonmaps.com/
  • Robert Pricke (publisher), 1666
  • Frederik de Wit, 'PLATTE GRONDT DER STADT LONDON MET NIEUW MODEL EN HOE DIE AFGEBRANDT IS' 1666 (compare: Anonymous, 1666, Jacob Venckel, 1667 description, Anonymous 1667)
  • John Ogilby's map of the City of London 1676 (from Collage image database)
    Sheet: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
    and John Ogilby's and William Morgan's 'LARGE AND ACCURATE MAP OF THE CITY OF LONDON. Ichnographically describing all the Streets, Lanes, Alleys, Courts, Yards, Churches, Halls and Houses, &c. …'
    http://www.bl.uk/ (zoomable) surveyed 1676, published and dated 1677
  • John Overton (publisher), 1676 (zoomable)
  • Plan ascribed to Robert Hooke, 1667, published 1677 (compare: Frederik de Wit 1666, Anonymous 1667)
  • John Oliver, 1680 (compare: Johannes de Ram, 1690, Pieter van der Aa (publisher) 1690)
  • William Morgan, 'London &.c. Actually Survey'd by Wm. Morgan, His Matie's Cosmogr.' 1681-1682 [offline] extract ?
  • John Ogilby, 'Book of Roads' 1689 (zoomable)
  • Richard Blome, 1689
  • Anonymous, 1690 (zoomable)
  • Anonymous, 'KAART van de STAD LONDEN.' 1698
  • Nicolas de Fer, 'Plan des Villes de Londres et de Westminster et the leurs Faubourgs avec le Bourg de Southwark.' dated 1700, dated 1705 (zoomable)
    (compare: C. Inselin,1700, A. 1705)
  • John Stridbeck, 1700
  • I. Harris, 'This Actuall Survey of LONDON, WESTMINSTER & SOUTHWARK …' 1700 (compare: Robert Morden, Philip Lea (publisher), 1710)
  • Johann Baptist Homann, 'Accurater Prospect und Grundris der Konigl Gros Britanisch Haupt und Residenz Stadt London.' 1705 [offline]
    Collage image database 1710
  • John Overton (publisher), 1706
  • Richard Chiswell, Thomas Horne, J. Nicholson, Robert Knaplock (publisher), 1707
  • Kip, [view of London and Westminster] 1714-22
  • Ann Lea, Richard Glynne (publisher), 1716
  • Thomas Taylor (publisher), 1716
  • John Strype, 'A New Plan of the City of London, Westminster and Southwark.' London, 1720 description (compare: Anonymous, 1720 and 1720 edition of John Stow(e) by John Strype, editor)
    Electronic edition of John Strype's 'A SURVEY OF THE CITIES OF London and Westminster'
  • S. Parker, 'A PLAN of the CITYS of LONDON WESTMISTER and Borough of SOUTHWARK with the new Additional Building[s]' 1720 1721 http://mapco.net/
  • Johann Thomas Kraus, 1720
  • Thomas Bowles (publisher), 1720
  • Henry Overton, 1720 (zoomable West End)
  • John Oliver, 1723 (compare: John Oliver 1680)
  • Thomas Bowles (publisher), 1723 1723 1723
  • Joseph Smith (publisher), 1724 John Smith (publisher),1725
  • Anonymous (colourfull map) 1725 (compare: I. Harris 1700)
  • Ann Lea, Richard Glynne (publisher), 1725
  • Danet (publisher),'Plan de la Ville de Londres et de Westminster …' 1727 monochrome
  • Thomas Bowles (publisher), 'A New & Exact Plan of Ye City of LONDON and Suburbs thereof, With the addition of the NewBuildings, Churches &c. to this present Year 1731' 1731 [1734 ?] (zoomable)
  • Henry Overton (publisher), 1733 (compare: Henry Overton, 1739, R.W Seale, 1741, Thomas Bowles, Simon Schropp & Co.; John Bowles (publisher), 1753, William Owen (publisher),1757)
  • George Willdey (publisher),1735
  • J. Hawsworth (engraver), 'A SURVEY of the Roads and Foot-paths in the Parish of ISLINGTON. From a plan in the Vestry Room, Drawn in the Year 1735' surveyed 1735 (zoomable), published 1811
  • John Bowles,1736
  • R.W. Seale, 1736
  • Bowles & Carver (publisher) 1738
  • Sutton Nicholls, 1739
  • John Bowles (publisher) 1743
  • S. Lyne, 1745 (zoomable)
  • John Rocque, 'A PLAN OF the CITIES of LONDON AND WESTMINSTER, and BOROUGH of SOUTHWARK; with the CONTIGUOUS BUILDINGS; From an actual SURVEY, taken by JOHN ROCQUE, […] This Work was begun in March 1737, and Published in October 1746, […]' 1746 ectract
    'An Exact Survey of the Citys of London, Westminster, ye Borough of Southwark, and the Country near Ten Miles round begun in 1741 & ended in 1745 by John Rocque Land Surveyor & Engrau'd by Richard Parr.' published first 1746
    http://www.bl.uk/ (zoomable)
  • George Matthaus Seutter, 'LONDINUM …' ~ 1750
  • Gentleman's Magazine, 'A MAP of the NEW ROADS &c. from WESTMINSTER BRIDGE' , 1753
  • Isaak Tirion, 'Kaart van Londen...', Amsterdam, 1754
  • Richard Blome, 'A MAP of ST SEPULCHERS without CHARTERHOUSE LIBERTY and CLERKENWELL PARISH' 1755 (zoomable)
  • The Proposed New Road from Paddington to Islington 1756 in London. (shows distribution of property)
    'A PLAN of the intended New ROAD from PADDINGTON to ISLINGTON' also 1756
  • Bennost, 1758 (zoomable)
  • ??? published by Samuel Leigh, depicting a state of the 'West End' development approximately between 1758 and 1760
  • Robert Sayer, 'A Pocket MAP of LONDON WESTMINSTER And SOUTHWARK …' 1760 (zoomable)
  • Anonymous, 1761
  • Anonymous, 1763
  • J. Gibson, 1763 (compare: Anonymous 1761)
  • Isaac Basire, 1763
  • Anonymous, 1764
  • Anonymous, 1765 (compare: I. Harris 1700)
  • Anonymous, 1765
  • L.C. Desnos, 1766
  • Carington Bowles (publisher), 1766
  • John Gibson, 1766 (zoomable) almost identical to: Anonymous, 1767
  • Robert Sayer (publisher), 1768
  • Anonymous, 1768
  • Anonymous, 1770 1770
  • T Jefferys, large 1772
  • Dicey, Cluer & Co. (publisher), 1772
  • John Noorthouck, 'A New PLAN of LONDON WESTMINSTER and SOUTHWARK …' 1772 (zoomable)
  • Robert Sayer (publisher), 1775
  • 'BOWLE'S Reduced NEW POCKET PLAN of the CITIES of LONDON and WESTMINSTER, with the BOROUGH of SOUTHWARK, exhibiting the NEW BUILDINGS to the YEAR 1775.' [printed for Carington Bowles 1773]
  • Anonymous, 1777
  • George Foster, 'A New and exact Plan of the Cities of London and Westminster & the Borough of Southwark to this present year...' London: Robert Sayer, 1778 [offline]
  • J. Ellis, 1780
  • William Faden, 1781
  • John Cary, 'LONDON, WESTMINSTER AND SOUTHWARK, Accurately delineated from the latest Surveys,to which is now firft added, a CORRECT LIST of upwards of 350 HACKNEY COACH FARES …' 1783 (zoomable)
  • J. Bennett, Robert Sayer (publisher), 1784
  • William Faden (publisher), 1785
  • I. Fielding (publisher), 1786
  • Rober Sayer (publisher), 1786
  • Carington Bowles (publisher), 1788
  • Dicey Cluer, 1789 (zoomable)
  • J. Evans (publisher), 1798
  • John Harris (publisher), 1790
  • 'GENERAL PLAN for explaining the different TRUSTS of the TURNPIKE GATES in the Vicinity of the Metropolis' [published by John Cary 1790]
  • William Faden, 'A NEW POCKET PLAN […] Comprehending the New Buildings and other Alterations to the Year 1790.' 1790 (zoomable)
  • Robert Sayer (publisher), 1791
  • Pierre Francois Tardieu, 1795
  • Thomas Foot, 1795
  • 'CARY's New and Accurate Plan of LONDON AND WESTMINSTER, the Borough of SOUTHWARK and parts adjacent; […]' John Cary 1795
  • Edward Mogg, 1797
  • Bowles & Carver (publisher), 1797
  • John Stockdale (publisher), 1797
  • John Wallis ' WALLIS'S PLAN of the CITIES of LONDON and WESTMINSTER 1797' 1797 (zoomable)
  • Darton, William and Harvey, Josiah (publisher), 'A new Pocket Plan …' 1797 (zoomable, highlighting "open spaces")
  • George Thompson (publisher), 'A New & Accurate PLAN of the CITIES of LONDON & WESTMINSTER .... ' 1798 Collage image database
  • Joseph Marshall (publisher), 1798
  • Anonymous, 1799
  • Richard Horwood (1758 - 1803) Plan of the Cities of London and Westminster, the Borough of Southwark, and Parts Adjoining. Showing Every House 1792 - 1799 ("Plan of the Cities of London and Westminster the Borough of Southwark and Parts adjoining Shewing every House. By R. Horwood")
    The history of Horwood's Plan told by www.oldlondonmaps.com and www.motco.com
    http://www.bl.uk/ (zoomable, though not to full detail)
    workable online version: www.motco.com




  1. 'London, The Unique City' by Steen Eiler Rasmussen, published by The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Revised Edition) - 1982 (original edition in Danish, London - 1934)
    1 (page 199)
    For Steen Eiler Rasmussen, as a matter of course, 'squares' » [… are] a restricted whole as complete as the courtyard of a convent. They form fine geometrical figures in the town plan, they are regular and completely uniform on all sides, and a series of such squares may be linked together in any order. […] « (pages 198 to 199)
  2. Sdoutz 2007
    Img. _01 London Squares by 1799 according to Horwood's map of 1792 – 1799. The shaded area indicates London’s likely scale in 1666 approximated to Hollar's maps []
  3. 2 Some examples:

    St James Square in its first state and around 1727 [as re-designed by landscape gardener Charles Bridgeman] and in 1752, and 1812

    Leicester Square ~1727, 1750, 1753, also 1753, 1754, 1760, 1805, 1815, 1851, 1855

    Soho [Kings] Square ~1727, 1731, 1754, 1812

    Bloomsbury [Southampton] Square ~1725, 1750, 1754, 1787, 1817

    The 'Berkeley Plane' in Berkeley Square was planted in 1789 []

    The central garden in Grosvenor Square [ » designed 'in Wildernesse worke' but formal in its layout « 1725] 1746, ~1751, 1754, ~1789, 1800, 1813






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File Log

  • COLLAGE, the fabulous image database hosted by The City of London Libraries and Guildhall Art Gallery is back online (23rd of March 2008). All links have been updated. [April 2009]
  • 'Collect Britain' has moved to 'Crace Collection of Maps of London'. All links have been updated with a view added. (22nd of December 2008).
<h3>&copy; Franz Sdoutz, December 2011</h3>

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